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冠词的用法说明

【英语单词】 2019-04-03本文已影响
'); })(); 冠词,是用来表示名词特性的一种词,它表示名词可数不可数、单数复数、任何一个还是特定的一个等。也就是说,冠词与名词是紧密连在一起的。如果用了a /an /the,不管后面是什么词,都变成了名词。所以,冠词就是放在名词前面的一种词。下面小编为大家详细介绍下冠词的用法说明,希望对大家有用。?  冠词的用法说明如下:?  一、使用冠词有三种基本情况:?  1、用a / an?  a / an 用在单数可数名词前面,表示这个人或事物是泛指的不确定的一个,相当于中文的“一个”。注意:可数的单数名词前,必须要用a / an 或the. 我们不能说 boy, ?desk, ?dog,而必须说 a boy / the boy.?  a 用在读音为辅音开头的名词之前, ?而 an 用在读音为元音开头的名词之前。注意:这里指的是“读音”,而不仅仅指字母。例如:?  a university 一所大学 (虽然u 是元音字母,但不读元音。)?  an hour 一个小时 (虽然h 不是元音,但单词读音是元音开头)?  另外,a / an 也可用在不可数名词前面,这时,这个不可数名词就变成了可数的单数名词,意义上也有变化。例如:?  glass 玻璃, ?a glass 一只玻璃杯 ?/ wood 木头, a ?wood 一片树林?  power威力, a power大国 / beauty 美丽, a beauty美人, 美的事物?  2、用the?  the 相当于this/that 或these / those,总的用法是表示特定的人或事物。the 的用法最广,不管是可数还是不可数,不管是单数还是复数,都可以用the. 具体用法见下面的讲解。?  3、不用冠词?  有的时候,名词前面不用任何冠词,没有a / an / the. 有的书上称为零冠词。不可数名词前可以不用冠词,可数的复数名词也可以不用,还有一些习惯用法上不需要用。?  下面,详细讲一个冠词的用法。?  二、不定冠词的用法:?  1、表示某一类人或某事物中的任何一个, ?通常在第一次提到某人或某物时用a / an,以表示与其他事物的区别。?  I gave him a book yesterday. 我昨天给了他一本书。?  I am reading an interesting story. 我在读一本有趣的故事书。?  I have got a ticket. 我有一张票。?  There is a tree in front of my house. 我的屋前有一棵树。?  2、用其中的任何一个,代表他们所属种类的特性。?  A horse is useful to mankind. 马对人类有用。?  A bird can fly. 鸟会飞。?  A steel worker makes steel. 炼钢工人炼钢。?  3、用在事物的度量单位前, ?如时间、 速度、 价格等, 表示 "每一个"。?  We often go to school two times a day. 我们常常一天两次去学校。?  I went to the library once a week at least. 我一星期至少去一次图书馆。?  The potato is sold at about 30 fen a jin. 土豆卖三毛钱一斤。?  4、用来泛指某人、某物或地方。?  A boy came to see you a moment ago. 刚才有一个小孩来找你。?  I got this tool in a shop. 我在商店买的这件工具。?  We need a car now. 我们现在需要一辆车。?  She is ill, she has to see a doctor. 她病了,她得去看病。?  5、用于某些特定的词组。 例如:a few 几个, a little 有点,等等。?  She has a few friends in this city. 她在这个城市中有几个朋友。?  There is a little milk in the bottle. 瓶子里有点牛奶。?  Only a few students are in the classroom. 只有几个学生在教室里。?  三、定冠词的用法?  1、定冠词特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。?  The bag in the desk is mine. 桌子里的书包是我的。?  Is this the book you are looking for? 这是你要找的书吗??  Do you know the man in back? 你知道穿黑色衣服的人是谁吗??  It is not the car we are looking for. 这不是我们要找的车。?  The man has found his child. 那个人找到了他的孩子。?  2、如果第一次提到某人或事物的时候,用a / an,那么以后再提到的话,就变成特指的人或事物了。?  I bought a book from Xinhua book-shop. The book costs 15 yuan.?  我从新华书店买了一本书. 这本书值十五元。?  I saw a film yesterday. The film was ended at eight o'clock.?  我昨天看了一场电影。电影八点钟结束的。?  Lucy bought a radio yesterday, but she found something was wrong with the radio.?  露西昨天买了一台收音机,但是她发现收音机有问题。?  3、定冠词用于表示世界上独一无二的事物或用于自然界现象或方位名词之前。这些事物当然是特指的事物,不可能有两个以上。?  the sun the moon the earth?  the sky the world the winter night?  The sun is bigger than the moon. 太阳比月亮大。?  I can see a bird in the sky. 我能看到天空中有一只小鸟。?  I like to have a walk with the bright moon light in the evening. 我愿晚上在明亮的月光下散步。?  4、定冠词与单数名词连用, 也可以表示这一类人或事物。?  The dog is not too danger. 狗不太危险。?  The cat is an animal. 猫是一种动物。?  The umbrella in the shop is very cheap in this season. 这个季节商店里的雨伞很便宜。?  5、定冠词与形容词连用, 可表示某一类人或事物。这可看作是省略了名词的用法。?  The wounded were brought to the hospital. 受伤者被送到了医院。?  He always helps the poor. 他经常帮助穷人。?  The deaf can go to this special school. 耳聋者可以进这所特殊学校上学。?  注意:the 用在姓名复数之前, 表示一家人。?  The Greens is very kind to us. 格林一家人待我们很好。?  The Whites like the classic music. 怀特一家喜欢古典音乐。?  6、其它需要用the 的情况?  语法: 零冠词?  一、概念?  冠词是一个虚词,本身无词义,也不能单独使用,它用在名词之前,限定名词的意义。冠词可分为定冠词,不定冠词和零冠词三类。?  二、零冠词的用法:(Zero Article)?  1. “人名、地名、国名”等专有名词前通常不用冠词:?  1). Mary; Tom; Jim; Miss Li; Mr. Zhang; Lei Feng?  2). Beijing; Shanghai; London; Paris?  3). England; China; Germany; South Africa?  但如后有定语修饰表特指,需加定冠词:?  1). He is not longer the Brown we knew ten years ago. 他不是我们十年前认识的那个布朗。?  2). The Beijing of today is different from what it was. 今天的北京不同与从前的北京了。?  2. “街名、广场名、公园名、大学名”等专有名词前通常不用冠词:?  1). Wang Fu Jing Street 王府井大街; Naking Road 南京路?  2). Tian An Men Square 天安门广场?  3). Pei Hai Park 北海公园; Hyde Park海德公园?  4). Beijing University 北京大学; Zhejiang University 浙江大学?  但也可说:the University of Beijing; ?the University of Zhejiang?  3. 正职或表示独一无二的官衔,职位,称号”的专有名词作表语、补语、介词的宾语或同位语时,前一般不加冠词:?  The guards took the American to General Lee. 士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。?  Lincoln, president of the United States, was murdered in 1864.?  In 1860, Lincoln became President of the United States.?  We made him head of our class.?  但这个名词后有短语“of”时,有时也可加“the”:?  He is (the) captain of the basketball team. 他是篮球队的队长。?  He is chairman of the Students’ Union. 他是学生会主席。?  They elected him president of the U.S. 他们选他当美国总统。?  如不是独一的要加不定冠词:?  She is a teacher of English in our school. 她是我校的一位英语教师。?  4. “个体名词复数”表泛指一类人或事物时不用冠词:?  1). My mother and father are school teachers. 我母亲和父亲都是教师。?  2). Horses are useful animals. 马是有用的动物。?  5. “抽象名词、物质名词”表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词:?  1). Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。?  2). Man cannot live without water. 人离开水就无法生存。?  3). He is fond of music. 他喜欢音乐。?  但如后有定语修饰表特指,需加定冠词:?  1). The news that you heard is true. 你听到的消息是真的。?  2). The water in this well is fit to drink. 这口井里的水能喝。?  3). The music of the film is very beautiful. 这部影片的音乐很动听。?  6. “节日、季节”等名词前不用冠词:?  1). New Year's Day 新年,元旦; ? Women’s Day ?妇女节; ? ?Labour Day 劳动节;?  Children's Day 儿童节; ? ?April Fools’Day 愚人节; ? ? ?National Day 国庆节;?  Thanksgiving Day falls on the 4th Thursday in November. 感恩节在每年十一月的第四个星期四。?  Christmas Day 圣诞节;?  但我国的节日前用定冠词:?  the Spring Festival 春节; the Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋节?  2). in spring (summer, autumn, winter)?  Winter has come, is spring still far away? 冬天来了,春天还会远吗??  但如后有定语修饰表特指,需加定冠词:?  in the spring of 1945 一九四五年的春季?  7. “年份、月份、星期、日期”等名词前不用冠词:?  in 1988; in August; on Thursday; on August 8th?  We go to school from Monday to Friday. 我们从星期一到星期五都上课。?  8. “一日三餐”等名词前不用冠词:?  have breakfast (lunch, supper)?  I have breakfast at 7 every day.?  但如前面有形容词修饰,需用不定冠词;后面有定语修饰,需用定冠词:?  He had a big breakfast today. 他今天吃了顿丰盛的早餐。?  The breakfast he had today was good. 他今天吃的早餐不错。?  9. 球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不用冠词:?  1). play football (basketball; volleyball; tennis; tennis ball)?  2). play chess?  10. 当“bike, car, bus, train, boat, ship, plane”等与“by”连用,表示一种交通手段时,不用冠词:?  by bus,by train;?  He goes to work by bike. 他骑车去上班。?  Did you come back by plane or by train? 你坐飞机还是坐火车回来的??  “by water, by land, by sea, by air”以及“on foot, on horseback”也属同种情况:?  She said they would go there by air. 她说他们将坐飞机去那儿。?  Two men on horseback -- nothing else. 有两个人在马背上,别的一无所有。?  但当这些名词特指某一交通工具时,则要与冠词连用:?  The assistant went on a bike. 助手骑一辆自行车出去了。?  After the school the girl returned home on the 9:30 train.?  放学后,这女孩坐9:30的火车回家去。?  11. 序数词作副词时,前不用冠词:?  He came first in the race.?  Work must come first.?  12. 一些固定词组中:go to bed, go to school, by bus, at night?  三、在有些词组中,有冠词和无冠词意思不同,请注意区别:?  1. in front of 在…前面, ?in the front of 在…范围内的前部?  2. 有些个体名词“school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class,town,church,court”等词表“深层含义”不用冠词:?  go to hospital  去医院看病?  go to the hospital  去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的)?  in hospital (生病)住院, in the hospital ?在医院里?  3. 当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词:?  I can’t write without pen or pencil. 没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。?  He looked at me from head to foot, as if he didn’t know me at all.?  他从头到脚打量我,好像根本不认识我似的。?  They are father and son, both of whom are good at acting.?  他们俩是父子,都擅长表演。?  Della searched shop after shop for a Christmas gift that was worthy of her husband.?  德拉走了一家又一家商店,寻找一件配得上她丈夫的圣诞礼物。?  4. 两个形容词都有冠词,表示两个不同东西。?  He raises a black and a white cat.  他养了一只黑猫和一只白猫。?  The black and the white cats are hers.  这只黑猫和白猫都是他的。?  如后一个形容词无冠词,则指一物。?  He raises a black and white cat.  他养了一只花猫。
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